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Guide Blood Type: An Anthology of Vampire SF on the Cutting Edge
A case in point may be that of Laurence Sterne in Italy. Laurence Sterne was a well-known writer in nineteenth- century Italy, a remarkable situation given the case of Shakespeare. The Italian context was a difficult one for foreign authors because, apart from translations from Greek or Latin, the Italian intellectuals saw no need to introduce new authors to Italy. The motherland of the Renaissance and the country of Dante, Petrarch and Boccaccio had no need of foreign writers. The article provoked the fierce reactions of the Italian scholars and opened the way for Romanticism in Italy.
Giordani translator, Biblioteca Italiana, January, p. Actually Foscolo could have read Sterne many years before. In this letter Foscolo tells the story of Lauretta, which follows closely the Maria episode of the Tristram Shandy. Foscolo loved it so much that he inserted the translation of the story of Maria described in the IXth volume of the Tristram Shandy within his translation of A Sentimental Journey. In his Piano di Studi of there is an entry named Laura, lettere. Fasano21 thought it was an indication of the very first novel written by Foscolo, whose fragments passed into the Jacopo Ortis letters.
It is important to stress that Foscolo always mentions his source in quotations, but for the Lauretta episode he does not think it appropriate to do so as he considers the story a free reworking. Such an obsession for authorship and originality plagued Foscolo through all the years he worked on translating Sterne.
Carli edi- tor, Le Monnier, Firenze, p. II, op. Fasano , Stratigrafie foscoliane, Bulzoni, Roma. As mentioned above, this was a time when translation was considered a secondary activity, devoid of authorship, and whose low status made it appropriate for women. He worked for years on his translation and it is possible to assume the existence of two versions before the publication of the last one in IV, op.
To make his presence evident in the text he creates his own character, something that did not exist in the original. Foscolo, so obsessed by the concept of authorship and original- ity, was fascinated by Laurence Sterne and his ability as a writer, but could not tolerate all the originalities of his style. The Italian cultural context and maybe Foscolo himself were not ready for all the graphic peculiarities, the double entendres, the sexual allusions. This is evident in the numbering of the chapters that does not exist in the original, in the removal of the separation into two volumes and in the elimination of some graphical peculiarities of the original such as the very long dashes.
Foscolo felt uncomfortable with the unfinished original and was compelled to add a conclusion to the book in which he explained that Yorick went on travelling in Italy but unfortunately died suddenly when he was on his way to London to publish his book. Foscolo adapts the colloquial style of the original to a compli- cated Italian language that is almost unreadable for a contemporary Italian reader, the opposite of the simple style of Sterne. The notes at the end of the Italian page slow down the reading and add ex- planations that in the original were left to the skill of the reader.
A case in point is the image of the women that emerges from the English and the Italian text. It is not that he alters the material facts of the narration, but through the manipulation of small details the final portraits are altered. Consider for example some of the expressions used to describe the Bruxelles lady. The lady of the English version is 24 L.
XXIV, p. One of the main explanations of the ex- istence of many different translations of one single original is that a translation grows old and the language used in one period does not seem clear and easily understandable in another. Mazzacurati translator, ed. Cronopio, vol.
It was completely unsuccessful and soon retired from print. Full professor and expert on Sterne, Mazzacurati27 is, however, more concerned about Foscolo than Sterne, as is evident from his preface. He declares his admiration for Foscolo and accuses himself of arrogance and ingratitude. Conclusion In conclusion, in the analysis of those texts that have been con- sidered particularly representative of a culture, and as such have been given a passport to travel beyond the borders of their original country, special attention must be given to the target context and the position of the translator in that context.
The great popularity and the literary worth of the works of an author such as William Shakespeare made him central to English culture and his great success made him known abroad through translation. Unfortunately, the opinions expressed by a key author of the French culture such as Voltaire slowed down his travelling in Italy.
The very fact that the first Italian translation of Shakespeare was by a woman at a time when women were not considered able to write literary works further demonstrates this. Furthermore, the very limited popularity of Renier, his translator, could have acted as a further obstacle to the spread of knowledge of Shakespeare. Gender also seems to play a very important role in the defini- tion of the relevance of the translated text.
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The fact that Giustina Renier dared to take her first steps into the literary word is thanks to translation, secondary literary activity, scarcely important, not original and for these very reason feminine, as Lori Chamberlain28 explained. Re- nier tries to justify herself for being a translator, for gaining access to the literary world. Foscolo justifies himself too but for the very opposite reason. As translator, the fatherhood of his work could be contested,29 his translation being the original work of another author.
In order to claim his male authorship over the text, he cre- ates the character of Didimo Chierico. Women have been in darkness for centuries. They begin from a theoretical platform that is already in place, already elaborated. Chamberlain , Gender and the metaphorics of translation, in L. Said, in S. Gilbert e S. Gubar, op. Foscolo cannot be a translator; he is first of all an author and in order to exert his right of possession over his work he must assert his originality, as the imagery of suc- cession, paternity, or hierarchy usually used by writers to assert their place in the literary word testifies.
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It could be argued that literary texts change position according to the different cultures that read them. Furthermore, the relevance and popularity of an author in a culture can be influenced by ele- ments that are not only literary. Calvani, Alessandra, , The relationship between writer and transla- tor, Babel 1. Carli, Plinio ed. Said, op.
- Caravansérail (ROMAN) (French Edition)?
- Konflikt als Chance (German Edition).
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Fasano, Pino, , Stratigrafie foscoliane, Roma: Bulzoni. Pratt, T. Silverstein, Michael, and Urban, Greg, eds. Sterne, Lawrence, , Un Viaggio sentimentale, G. Whoever makes the fewest mistakes wins. Chi ne commette di meno vince. Introduction Football is a popular sport with millions of fans and followers around the world.