The Buddha has much to say on the subject of wisdom including:. In Taoism , Practical Wisdom may be described as knowing what to say and when to say it. Psychologists have gathered data on commonly held beliefs or folk theories about wisdom. Personality theorist Erik Erikson related wisdom to the last stage of his eight-stage theory of psychosocial development.
Erikson's theory spans the entire lifespan and frames each stage in the form of internally-generated questions or tensions. Erikson claimed that in the last stage of human development, from approximately 65 years to death, individuals must resolve a psychological conflict between integrity and despair. He proposed that attaining wisdom is a favorable resolution and product of this conflict.
Strength here takes the form of that detached yet active concern with life bounded by death, which we call wisdom… Not that each man can evolve wisdom for himself… To whatever abyss ultimate concerns may lead individual men, man as a psychological creature will face, toward the end of his life, a new edition of the identity crisis which we may state by the words "I am what survives me.
Thus, within Eriksonian theory, wisdom universally surfaces as an optimal potential outcome of the human experience. In the s, Vivian Clayton pioneered the academic study of wisdom. Clayton "is generally recognized as the first psychologist to ask, in even faintly scientific terms, 'What does wisdom mean, and how does age affect it?
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Another wisdom researcher, sociologist Monika Ardelt, has developed a "Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale," a test that individuals can take for a numerical assessment of their wisdom on a scale of one to five. The number of academic publications about wisdom increased significantly from to Nevertheless, according to Jacqui Smith, one of Baltes's collaborators, the subject is not completely accepted in academia.
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But when I got to be twenty-one, I was astonished at how much the old man had learned in seven years. New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards. Permissions Icon Permissions. Article PDF first page preview.
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The ancient wisdom the Dalai Lama hopes will enrich the world
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