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Researchers from The Ohio State University extended summer learning gap research further by conducting a national study of 17, kindergarten and first grade children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. The authors confirmed earlier findings of an unequal starting point, showing that a standard deviation's advantage in SES predicts a 1. While the average kindergarten learning rate was 1.

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The United States has a K public school enrollment roughly 48 million, of which only 9. Because summer school programs are voluntary, self-selection also confounds the effects of attending. Due to these differences, most summer school programs have not been effective in reducing the achievement gap between low-SES and high-SES youth, and in some cases actually exacerbate the gaps.

For those low-SES students who do not have access to high quality summer learning opportunities, the personal impact is significant. The early learning gap among low-SES students, which is predominantly driven by summer learning loss in the elementary school years, casts a long achievement shadow.

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Further, it is predominantly literacy related skills that are affected the most Graham, In a study conducted by Kim an intervention was designed to provide children with effective summer learning experiences and to improve the reading abilities of minority student's and struggling readers. The results of the study indicate that the most significant reading gains occurred for disadvantaged students while students from middle to high socio-economic upbringings remained stable on standardized measures of reading Kim, However, such findings are not consistent with a recent review by Guryan and Kim whereby a summer reading intervention was implemented for low-income Latino children.

Low-income parents often lack the resources to provide children with sufficient reading materials needed to reinforce important literacy skills. Further children who are English language learners need additional exposure to print material, which may be difficult for children in homes where English is not the native language Guryan and Kim, This study concludes by suggesting that family literacy interventions focusing primarily on training parents do not reliably improve child outcomes; and a more effective approach would be to train both parents and children in a summer reading program.

High-achieving students are much less affected than others by the school year. High-achieving students maintain approximately the same steady rate of skill growth regardless of whether school is in session, whereas average students grow faster during the school year and plateau during the summer.

The majority of the literature which examines the effects of the summer learning loss lends to the importance of involving families in the implementation of summer reading programs. Graham, McNamara and Van Lankveld conducted a summer literacy program to address specific literacy needs of young children which also required the involvement of caregivers in program delivery. Children as well as caregivers attended literacy skill building workshops where instructional sessions were tailored towards both children and parents, as well as include a collaborative component.

Based on the analysis of pre-test and post-test data collected during the study, children demonstrated significant improvements in developing their literacy skills Graham, Timmons also identifies the importance of providing literacy education to parents and children, while also bringing them together to work collaboratively in group situations. The active involvement of caregivers in their child's educational career only enhances academic achievement, as research indicates the significant influence that family involvement has on successful student outcomes Timmons, By clicking continue below and using our sites or applications, you agree that we and our third party advertisers can:.

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Other developments will be easy enough to absorb. While away at school, Jackie Green, a year-old junior at The Ohio State University, traded the meat and pasta of her childhood for a diet of fish and vegetables.

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A couple nights each week, the family has fish and vegetables while Ms. Green is home with them in Orlando, Fla.

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And some shifts may test family bonds. Hawk Anderson, a year-old senior at the University of California, Riverside, from San Diego, was initially disowned by his mother, his primary parent, when he came out as bisexual at age So it would not be surprising if there is some friction in the window between the return from college and the beginning of summer jobs, internships or travel plans.